See also

Thomas RAYNOR (1864-1930)

Name: Thomas RAYNOR1
Is a Twin?: Yes. Twin brother of Betty (1864-1941)
Father: James RAYNOR (1835-1871)
Mother: Louisa SINFIELD (1834-1921)
Leonard Raynor's: father

Individual Events and Attributes

Birth 4 May 1864 Jhansie, North Western Provinces, India2,3,4,5
Thomas and Betty were twins.
Baptism 18 May 1864 Jhansie, North Western Provinces2,3
Residence 18 May 1864 Jhansie, North Western Provinces2
Residence frm 19 Jul 1871 to 11 May 1878 Royal Military Asylum for Children of Soldiers of the Regular Army, Chelsea, London6
Aged 7 years and 2 months old, Thomas was placed here by his mother. His younger brother Charles would follow him here 3 years later.

Carole Divall wrote of the Royal Military Asylum:

"The Asylum was run on military lines with military appointees in charge: commandant, adjutant, chaplain, quartermaster, surgeon, assistant surgeon, and matron. In addition, there was a sergeant major of instructions who, with his assistants, supervised the education of the boys, while the matron, with her assistants, did the same for the girls. The affairs of the Asylum were regulated by commissioners, appointed by the King, and they also selected the children (originally 700 boys and 300 girls) who should be admitted as pupils. Some would come automatically from an establishment on the Isle of Wight for children who were considered too young for the Asylum.

These children were the legitimate offspring of soldiers who had been killed, or died while serving abroad, or whose mothers had died and whose fathers were serving abroad, or whose fathers had been ordered on foreign service, or whose parents had other children to maintain. The character of the father, whether dead or still living, was crucially important. For this reason, once the child’s parent or guardian had made the initial application, giving full details of the child’s situation, the commanding officer of the father’s regiment had to vouch for the soldier’s good conduct. In addition, the parents’ marriage certificate and the child’s birth and baptismal certificate had to be supplied, as well as a certificate of health, from the regimental surgeon or a recognised medical practitioner.

Once the children were accepted, on the understanding that they would stay for as long as the commissioners considered desirable, they wore the red and blue uniform of the Asylum: red jacket, blue breeches, blue stockings and black cap for boys; red gown, blue petticoat, white apron, straw bonnet for girls. They also followed a strictly regulated day.

The children were woken by the beat of a drum, at six o’clock in the summer and seven o’clock in the winter. They had two hours to clean boots and shoes, wash their face and hands, and generally put their dormitories to rights, before breakfast at eight o’clock in the summer and nine o’clock in the winter. Breakfast consisted of milk pottage, made of 1/6th quart of milk and 1/10th pound of oatmeal per child, and 1/20th of a quartern loaf. The school day started with prayers read either by the chaplain or by the sergeant major of instruction (to the boys) and the matron (to the girls).

Lessons then followed, reading and writing and the first four rules of arithmetic so that the children could cast accounts. Dinner was at one o’clock, and allowed some variation. For example, on three days the children were given eight ounces of beef, roasted, stewed or boiled, with twelve ounces of potatoes, 1/40th of a quartern loaf, and half a pint of beer. This was varied with boiled mutton, suet pudding, or pea soup, and milk rather than beer. Lessons recommenced at half past two, until five, followed by supper at seven o’clock in the summer and six o’clock in the winter. This meal consisted either of cheese, bread and beer, or bread and milk. There were also periods of play fitted into the timetable, although the girls were required to perform household duties, in which they were given specific instruction, and the boys were drilled. Since moral education was also considered crucially important, the chaplain taught the children their catechism and gave them religious instruction.

It was hoped that the boys would choose to enlist in the regular army, although those who did not were given training that would prepare them for an apprenticeship. The girls were also trained for apprenticeships or for employment as servants."
Enlisted (Military) 11 May 1878 London7
Enlisted for 12 years service.
Physical Description 11 May 1878 4 ft 7 in tall, fair complexion, brown hair and hazel eyes, chest size 26 inches, weight 68lbs.7
Distinctive marks recorded as: moles under right jaw, above navel, on right forearm, tattoo spots between [?] thumb and forefinger, small pox marks on left arm, blade right, [?] & chest slightly depressed
Attested (Military) 14 May 1878 Bow Street Police Court, London7
Military Rank frm 14 May 1878 to 31 Jan 1880 Boy7
Military Service No. 14 May 1878 36967
Military Regiment 14 May 1878 Royal Artillery7
Posted (Military) 14 Dec 1878 Colchester Garrison, Essex7
Education 23 Apr 1879 2nd Class Army Certificate of Education7
The following information is quoted from Skelley (1977) regarding Army Certificates of Education:*

"In 1861 a new inducement towards learning was the army certificate of education. On the recommendation of the Council of Military Education three levels or standards were set out and were linked with promotion in the ranks.

The third-class certificate specified the standard for promotion to the rank of corporal: the candidate was to read aloud and to write from dictation passages from an easy narrative, and to work examples in the four compound rules of arithmetic and the reduction of money.

A second-class certificate, necessary for promotion to sergeant, entailed writing and dictation from a more difficult work, familiarity with all forms of regimental accounting, and facility with proportions and interest, fractions and averages.

First-class certificates were a great deal more difficult and were required for commissions from the ranks. Successful candidates had to read and take dictation from any standard author; make a fair copy of a manuscript; demonstrate their familiarity with more complicated mathematics, except cube and square root and stocks and discount; and as well prepare for examination in at least one of a number of additional subjects. After 1887 candidates were examined in British history and geography in place of a special subject.

First-class certificates were awarded on the results of periodic examinations held by the Council (later Director-General) of Military Education. Second and third-class certificates were presented on the recommendations of the Army schoolmaster.

The third-class certificate of education was considered to be too high given the level of literacy of many army recruits, and the Commission+ urged the introduction of a fourth (minimum) standard."**

* SKELLEY, A.R. The Victorian Army At Home: The Recruitment and Terms and Conditions of the British Regular, 1859-1899. Mc Gill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1977, p. 94, 95, and 311.
+ A Royal Commission was appointed in 1868 to enquire into the provisions for educating officers and officer candidates, with jurisdiction extended to cover the provisions for instructing the rank and file.
** The fourth-class certificate of education was abolished in 1888.
Posted (Military) 15 Dec 1879 Hilsea Barracks, Wymering, Hampshire7
Military Rank frm 1 Feb 1880 to 4 Oct 1886 Trumpeter7,8
Hospitalised frm 29 Apr 1880 to 3 May 1880 febricula7
(A mild and transient fever)
Census 3 Apr 1881 Hilsea Barracks, Wymering, Hampshire8
Military Regiment 3 Apr 1881 Royal Artillery7,8
Hospitalised frm 4 Apr 1882 to 6 Apr 1882 febricula7
Posted (Military) 14 Apr 1882 Christchurch Barracks, Dorset7
Posted (Military) frm 3 Aug 1882 to 19 Oct 1882 Egypt7
Posted (Military) 19 Oct 1882 Shorncliffe Army Camp, Kent7
Posted (Military) frm 20 Oct 1882 to 30 Sep 1890 England7
Campaign Medal 1882 Egyptian War Medal & Clasp for Tel-el-Kebir7,9
Campaign Medal 1882 Khedives Star7,10
Posted (Military) 16 Jun 1883 Aldershot Garrison, Hampshire7
Hospitalised frm 24 Jun 1884 to 10 Jul 1884 primary syphillis7
Hospitalised frm 17 Jul 1884 to 1 Aug 1884 acute bronchitis7
Hospitalised frm 10 Nov 1884 to 25 Nov 1884 jaundice7
Hospitalised frm 17 Apr 1885 to 24 Apr 1885 a sore throat7
Posted (Military) 27 Jun 1885 Woolwich Barracks, Greenwich, London7
Hospitalised frm 5 Jul 1885 to 9 Jul 1885 balinitis7
Military Rank frm 5 Oct 1886 to 4 Jan 1887 Gunner7
Military Rank frm 5 Jan 1887 to 1 Mar 1887 Bombardier7
Military Rank frm 2 Mar 1887 to 30 Jun 1889 Gunner7,11
Thomas was demoted back to Gunner for misconduct by his C.O. Unfortunately, no details of the misconduct are given.
Posted (Military) 20 Aug 1889 Hilsea Barracks, Wymering, Hampshire7
Embarked (Military) 3 Aug 1890 England to India7
Aboard the HMS Malabas.
Military Rank frm 17 Sep 1890 to 18 Nov 1893 Bombardier7
Posted (Military) frm 1 Oct 1890 to 6 Nov 1893 India7
Hospitalised frm 15 Apr 1891 to 28 Apr 1891 gonorrhea7
Hospitalised frm 8 Sep 1891 to 19 Sep 1891 gonorrhea7
Hospitalised frm 17 Oct 1891 to 23 Oct 1891 ague (malarial fever)7
Embarked (Military) 12 Oct 1893 India to England7
Aboard the HMS Serapis.
Posted (Military) frm 7 Nov 1893 to 18 Nov 1893 England7
Physical Description 18 Nov 1893 5ft 7in tall, fresh complexion, hazel eyes, brown hair7
Discharged (Military) 18 Nov 18937
Discharged at his own request.
Occupation 30 Jul 1898 boots at a hotel12
Residence 30 Jul 1898 Storrs Hall, Windermere, Westmorland12
Residence 24 Feb 1899 Green Stile, Undermillbeck, Westmorland13
Occupation 24 Feb 1899 general labourer13
Registered Birth 24 Feb 1899 daughter Margaret Elizabeth Raynor13
Census 31 Mar 1901 Union Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland14
Occupation 31 Mar 1901 brick layer's labourer14
Residence 26 Jun 1901 29 Union Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland15
Occupation 26 Jun 1901 stonemason's labourer15
Residence 11 Apr 1904 7 Wyndham Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland16
Occupation 11 Apr 1904 general labourer16
Occupation 26 Apr 1905 iron ore miner17
Residence 26 Apr 1905 7 Wyndham Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland17
Registered Death 26 Apr 1905 daughter Louisa Raynor17
Residence 28 Jan 1907 7 Wyndham Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland18
Occupation 28 Jan 1907 general labourer18
Residence 19 Sep 1910 12 Aldby Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland19
Occupation 19 Sep 1910 general labourer19
Census 2 Apr 1911 12 Aldby Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland5
Occupation 2 Apr 1911 iron ore miner5
Occupation 26 Feb 1912 general labourer20
Residence 26 Feb 1912 15 Wyndham Street, Cleator Moor, Cumberland20
Residence 6 May 1913 Ellerslie Terrace, Gosforth, Cumberland21
Occupation 6 May 1913 general labourer21
Registered Birth 6 May 1913 son Charles Gerard Raynor21
Residence 1 Jul 1919 Ellerslie Terrace, Gosforth, Cumberland22
Occupation 1 Jul 1919 plasterer's labourer22
Occupation bef 1930 gardener1,23,24
Occupation 30 Nov 1930 general labourer25
Death 30 Nov 1930 Ellerslie Terrace, Gosforth, Cumberland1,23,25,26
Cause: catarrhal enteritis, toxeamia and cardiac syncope


Spouse Susan GRAHAM (1874-1947)
Children Margaret Elizabeth RAYNOR (1899-1960)
Thomas RAYNOR (1901-1943)
Louisa RAYNOR (1904-1905)
John James RAYNOR (1906-1978)
Charles RAYNOR (1910-1912)
Charles Gerard RAYNOR (1913-1995)
Leonard Michael RAYNOR (1919-1997)
Marriage 30 Jul 1898 The Church of Our Lady, Ambleside, Westmorland12,27


1Marriage Certificate - RAYNOR, Leonard Michael and MORGAN, Abigail (31-Oct-1945).
2British India Office Births & Baptisms - RAYNOR, Thomas and RAYNOR, Betty (04-May-1864).
3Birth & Baptism Certificate - RAYNOR, Thomas (04-May-1864).
4British Nationals Armed Forces Births 1761-2005 - RAYNOR.
5Census 1911 Cleator Moor, Cumberland RG14 - PN31513 RD577 SD3 ED5 SN132 1 RAYNOR, Thomas.
6Royal Military Asylum (Chelsea) Admissions 1803-1901.
7British Army Service Records - RAYNOR, Thomas (b.04-May-1864).
8Census 1881 Wymering, Hampshire RG11-1169-88-9 RAYNOR, Thomas.
9Example: Egyptian War Medal with Tel-el-Kebir Clasp.
10Example: 1882 Khedives Star.
11Example: Gunner Uniform circa 1890.
12Marriage Certificate - RAYNOR, Thomas and GRAHAM, Susan (30-Jul-1898).
13Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Margaret Elizabeth (08-Feb-1899).
14Census 1901 Cleator Moor, Cumberland RG13-4895-121-44 RAYNOR, Thomas.
15Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Thomas (02-May-1901).
16Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Louisa (08-Feb-1904).
17Death Certificate - RAYNOR, Louisa (26-Apr-1905).
18Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, John James (22-Dec-1906).
19Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Charles (11-Aug-1910).
20Death Certificate - RAYNOR, Charles (23-Feb-1912).
21Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Charles (27-Mar-1913).
22Birth Certificate - RAYNOR, Leonard (23-May-1919).
23Marriage Certificate - RAYNOR, Leonard Michael and DOHERTY, Pauline (20-Oct-1962).
24Family Recollections - Susan Wooff.
25Death Certificate - RAYNOR, Thomas (30-Nov-1930).
26England & Wales Death Index (from July 1837).
27England & Wales Marriage Index (from July 1837).